CETAL | PD Projects (PN-III-P1-1.1-PD) | PD_39/2022



PD 39 Project

English (Engleză)
Project number: PN-III-P1-1.1-PD-2021-0363
Project title: In situ monitoring of additive manufactured parts via infrared thermography and high speed imaging

Financial support:
Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS-UEFISCDI

Periode: April 2022 - March 2024

Contact Person:
Project Director: Dr. Ing. Diana CHIOIBASU

National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics - I.N.F.L.P.R.
Atomiștilor 409, Măgurele, Romania

Metal matrix composites are materials made up of at least two elements: a majority metal phase and a ceramic material in the form of particles or wires, dispersed in its mass. They benefit from the properties of the metallic material, such as low mass, high elasticity or high biocompatibility, to which are added other superior properties such as high breaking strength, better coefficient of friction or higher thermal conductivity, determined by the dispersed phase of the ceramic material. In this project, we will manufacture composite components using a 3D printing method entitled Laser Melting Deposition (LMD). The precursor material will be composed of metallic powder mixed in different mass concentrations with a hard ceramic. The objective of the proposed project is to understand and optimize the deposition process by monitoring it in real time using thermal and high speed imaging cameras. The results will allow to correlate the temperature distribution and / or plasma intensity, with internal defects that may form/appear during processing such as pores, cracks, flowing material or poor homogeneity of the elements of metal matrix composite. The development of such a monitoring system will result in an increase of the spatial printing resolution and will ensure the repeatability of the process, which represents a huge problem of the LMD technique.

Project objective:
The main objective of this project is to develop a set-up that allows real time monitoring the MMC fabrication parts, which allows early detection of defects during LMD process. With such a monitoring device, the user can interrupt the process early if flaws are detected and can help identify the cause of the defects, thus reducing the number of trial and error experiments.

Estimated results:
- 2 ISI articles
- 2 oral presentations at international conferences
- 1 national patent application

Research Team:
• Dr. Valentin CRACIUN

Română (Romanian)
Numar proiect: PN-III-P1-1.1-PD-2021-0363
Titlul proiectului: Fabricatie aditiva monitorizata in timp real prin termografie si imagistica rapida de componente din materiale compozite cu matrice metalica

Suport financiar:
Autoritatea Nationala Romana pentru Cercetare Stiintifica si Inovare, CNCS-UEFISCDI

Perioada: Aprilie 2022 – Martie 2024

Persoana de contact:
Director de proiect: Dr. Ing. Diana CHIOIBASU

Institutul National pentru Fizica Laserilor, Plasmei si Radiatiei – I.N.F.L.P.R
Atomiștilor 409, Măgurele, Romania

Compozitele cu matrice metalica sunt materiale formate din cel putin doua elemente: o faza metalica majoritara si un material ceramic sub forma de particule sau fire, dispersat in masa acesteia. Ele beneficiaza de proprietatile materialului metalic, precum masa redusa, elasticitate mare sau biocompatibilitate ridicata, la care se adauga si alte proprietati cu rol determinat de faza dispersata precum rezistenta ridicata la rupere, coeficient mai bun de frecare sau conductivitate termica superioara. In acest proiect, vom fabrica componente din materiale compozite utilizand o metoda de imprimare 3D denumita Depunere Laser prin Topire. Materialul precursor va fi compus din pulbere metalica amestecata in diferite proportii cu o ceramica dura. Obiectivul proiectului este intelegerea si optimizarea procesului de depunere prin monitorizarea lui in timp real cu ajutorul unor camere termice si prin imagistica rapida. Rezultatele vor permite corelarea distributiei de temperatura si/sau intensitatea plasmei, cu defecte de interior care pot aparea in timpul procesarilor precum, pori, fisuri, material care incepe sa curga sau neomogenitati ale elementelor din care este compus compozitul cu matrice metalica. Dezvoltarea unui astfel de sistem de monitorizare va permite cresterea rezolutiei spatiale de imprimare si va asigura repetabilitatea procesului.

Obiectivul proiectului:
Obiectivul principal al acestui proiect este de a dezvolta un mecanism de corelare a defectelor ce pot aparea in timpul procesului de fabricatie aditiva de piese din materiale compozite cu matrice metalica cu fluctuatiile inregistrare prin intermediul unor camere termice si a unei camerei rapide. Utilizand aceasta metoda, procesul poate fi intrerupt inca dintr-un stadiu incipient daca sunt identificate variatii ale temperaturilor sau plasmei care ulterior pot conduce la defecte in structura pieselor fabricate, astfel se reduce numarul de experimente nereusite.

Rezultate estimate:
- 2 articole stiintifice
- 2 prezentari orale la conferinte internationale
- 1 cerere de brevet de inventie

Echipa de cercetare:
• Dr. Valentin CRACIUN


Stage 1 - Reporting period: 04/01/2022 - 12/31/2022
In this stage, the following deliverables and result indicators were obtained:
- the optimal processing parameters of MMC materials with In718 matrix and TiC ceramics were identified in concentrations of wt.%5, wt.%10 and wt.%15, respectively, using the LMD technique
- the microstructure of the In718 matrix and the MMCs was analyzed by optical and electronic microscopy
- the microhardness of the obtained materials was tested
- the morphology of the deposits was analyzed by XPS, XRD and XRR
- the composition of the elements was studied by EDX

Stage 2 - Reporting period: 01/01/2023 - 31/12/2023
In this project phase, the following deliverables and result indicators were obtained:
- Metallographic preparation, structural analysis by optical microscopy, compositional and morphological analysis of the samples by SEM, EDX, XPS, XRR, XRD and hardness (additional).
- Identification of the optimal parameters regarding the scanning strategy for obtaining 3D parts from MMC with complex geometry: scanning trajectory, separation distance between lines on the horizontal and vertical axes.
- Thermal recording of the entire additive manufacturing process in order to obtain the 3D part from MMC through LMD.

Stage 3 - Reporting period: 01/01/2024 — 03/31/2024
In this project phase, the following deliverable and result indicator was obtained:
- Development of a mechanism for correlating possible defects/clusters of particles identified through optical and electronic microscopy analyzes with fluctuations recorded through thermal cameras and a high-speed camera.

The results were disseminated through the publication of two scientific articles, three patent applications, six oral presentations at international and national conferences and a technical documentation:

- Scientific articles/Articole științifice
• Chioibasu, D., Mihai, S., Cotrut, C.M. et al. Tribology and corrosion behavior of gray cast iron brake discs coated with Inconel 718 by direct energy deposition. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 121, 5091–5107 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-022-09646-7
• Muhammad Arif Mahmood; Diana Chioibasu; Sajjad Uzair; Sabin Mihai; Ion Tiseanu; Andrei C. Popescu, Printed Layers Height Calibration Curve and Porosity in Laser Melting Deposition of Ti6Al4V combining Experiments, Mathematical Modelling, and Deep Neural Network. Rapid Prototyping Journal (2023), acceptat spre publicare in 27.11.2023.

- Patent applications/Cereri de brevet de inventie
• D. Chioibasu, S. Mihai, I. Tiseanu, A. Popescu „Metodă de fabricație aditivă de compo-nente metalice pe substraturi de grafit” (A/00472/03.08.2022)
• D. Chioibasu, S. Mihai, V. Ciobanu, A. Popescu „Metodă de sudare laser a contactelor în-tre celulele bateriilor electrice din materiale eterogene Cu – Al utilizând un dispozitiv de menținere în contact rigid și monitorizare prin imagistică termică” (A/00471/03.08.2022)
• D. Chioibasu, S. Mihai, V. Toma, A. Popescu, “Procedeu de caracterizare in timp real a calitatii materialelor compozite obtinute prin tehnica de depunere laser prin topire” (A/00614/27.10.2023)

- Oral presentations at international and national conferences/Prezentari orale la conferinte internationale si nationale
• Diana Chioibasu, Sabin Mihai, Andrei C. Popescu, MEDICAL DEVICES OF TITANIUM ALLOYS OBTAINED BY LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNIQUES, International Conference on Laser, Plasma and Radiation – Science and Technology, 7-10 June 2022, Bucharest, Romania.
• Diana Chioibasu, Sabin Mihai, Andrei C. Popescu „METALLIC IMPLANTS FABRICATED BY ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES” prezentare invitata la 2nd Global Summit on 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing, 13-16 June 2022, Copenhagen, Denmark.
• Diana Chioibasu, Sabin Mihai, Andrei C. Popescu, MEDICAL DEVICES MANUFACTURED BY LASER POWDER BED FUSION AND DIRECTED ENERGY DEPOSITION, Procedes Laser pour L’industrie - PLI, 28-29 June 2022, Saint-Etienne, France.
• Diana CHIOIBASU, Sabin MIHAI, Andrei POPESCU „Tribology and corrosion behaviour of Gray Cast Iron brake discs coated with Inconel 718 by Direct Energy Deposition” 8th European Congress on 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing, October | 02-03 | 2023
• Sabin MIHAI, Diana CHIOIBASU, Andrei POPESCU „Metal Matrix Composites manufactured by Laser Metal Deposition” 8th European Congress on 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing, October | 02-03 | 2023
• P. V. Toma, D. Chioibasu, S. Mihai. A. Sima, I.Tiseanu and A. C. Popescu „In situ monitoring of additive manufactured metal matrix composites materials via infrared thermography and high-speed imaging” 8th European Congress on 3D Printing & Additive Manufacturing, October | 02-03 | 2023

- Tehnical documentations/Documentatii tehnice
• D. Chioibasu, S. Mihai, A. Popescu „Element de fixare din domeniul aeronautic fabricat prin tehnica de depunere laser prin topire” cod intern 23DEM32002.